Friday, November 12, 2010

Python: Enumerating IP Addresses on FreeBSD

As promised in my earlier post on enumerating local interfaces and their IP addresses on MacOS X, this time I'll cover how to do the same on FreeBSD and other operating systems that implement the getifaddrs API. Basically, this is just a python wrapper around the getifaddrs interface using ctypes.

The code is a bit longer than I typically like to include in a blog post, but here it goes:
Wrapper for getifaddrs(3).

import socket
import sys

from collections import namedtuple
from ctypes import *

class sockaddr_in(Structure):
_fields_ = [
('sin_len', c_uint8),
('sin_family', c_uint8),
('sin_port', c_uint16),
('sin_addr', c_uint8 * 4),
('sin_zero', c_uint8 * 8)

def __str__(self):
assert self.sin_len >= sizeof(sockaddr_in)
data = ''.join(map(chr, self.sin_addr))
return socket.inet_ntop(socket.AF_INET, data)

class sockaddr_in6(Structure):
_fields_ = [
('sin6_len', c_uint8),
('sin6_family', c_uint8),
('sin6_port', c_uint16),
('sin6_flowinfo', c_uint32),
('sin6_addr', c_uint8 * 16),
('sin6_scope_id', c_uint32)

def __str__(self):
assert self.sin6_len >= sizeof(sockaddr_in6)
data = ''.join(map(chr, self.sin6_addr))
return socket.inet_ntop(socket.AF_INET6, data)

class sockaddr_dl(Structure):
_fields_ = [
('sdl_len', c_uint8),
('sdl_family', c_uint8),
('sdl_index', c_short),
('sdl_type', c_uint8),
('sdl_nlen', c_uint8),
('sdl_alen', c_uint8),
('sdl_slen', c_uint8),
('sdl_data', c_uint8 * 12)

def __str__(self):
assert self.sdl_len >= sizeof(sockaddr_dl)
addrdata = self.sdl_data[self.sdl_nlen:self.sdl_nlen+self.sdl_alen]
return ':'.join('%02x' % x for x in addrdata)

class sockaddr_storage(Structure):
_fields_ = [
('sa_len', c_uint8),
('sa_family', c_uint8),
('sa_data', c_uint8 * 254)

class sockaddr(Union):
_anonymous_ = ('sa_storage', )
_fields_ = [
('sa_storage', sockaddr_storage),
('sa_sin', sockaddr_in),
('sa_sin6', sockaddr_in6),
('sa_sdl', sockaddr_dl),

def family(self):
return self.sa_storage.sa_family

def __str__(self):
family =
if family == socket.AF_INET:
return str(self.sa_sin)
elif family == socket.AF_INET6:
return str(self.sa_sin6)
elif family == 18: # AF_LINK
return str(self.sa_sdl)
print family
raise NotImplementedError, "address family %d not supported" % family

class ifaddrs(Structure):
ifaddrs._fields_ = [
('ifa_next', POINTER(ifaddrs)),
('ifa_name', c_char_p),
('ifa_flags', c_uint),
('ifa_addr', POINTER(sockaddr)),
('ifa_netmask', POINTER(sockaddr)),
('ifa_dstaddr', POINTER(sockaddr)),
('ifa_data', c_void_p)

# Define constants for the most useful interface flags (from if.h).
IFF_UP = 0x0001
IFF_RUNNING = 0x0040
if sys.platform == 'darwin' or 'bsd' in sys.platform:
elif sys.platform == 'linux':

# Load library implementing getifaddrs and freeifaddrs.
if sys.platform == 'darwin':
libc = cdll.LoadLibrary('libc.dylib')
libc = cdll.LoadLibrary('')

# Tell ctypes the argument and return types for the getifaddrs and
# freeifaddrs functions so it can do marshalling for us.
libc.getifaddrs.argtypes = [POINTER(POINTER(ifaddrs))]
libc.getifaddrs.restype = c_int
libc.freeifaddrs.argtypes = [POINTER(ifaddrs)]

def getifaddrs():
Get local interface addresses.

Returns generator of tuples consisting of interface name, interface flags,
address family (e.g. socket.AF_INET, socket.AF_INET6), address, and netmask.
The tuple members can also be accessed via the names 'name', 'flags',
'family', 'address', and 'netmask', respectively.
# Get address information for each interface.
addrlist = POINTER(ifaddrs)()
if libc.getifaddrs(pointer(addrlist)) < 0:
raise OSError

X = namedtuple('ifaddrs', 'name flags family address netmask')

# Iterate through the address information.
ifaddr = addrlist
while ifaddr and ifaddr.contents:
# The following is a hack to workaround a bug in FreeBSD
# (PR kern/152036) and MacOSX wherein the netmask's sockaddr may be
# truncated. Specifically, AF_INET netmasks may have their sin_addr
# member truncated to the minimum number of bytes necessary to
# represent the netmask. For example, a sockaddr_in with the netmask
# may be truncated to 7 bytes (rather than the normal
# 16) such that the sin_addr field only contains 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe.
# All bytes beyond sa_len bytes are assumed to be zero. Here we work
# around this truncation by copying the netmask's sockaddr into a
# zero-filled buffer.
if ifaddr.contents.ifa_netmask:
netmask = sockaddr()
memmove(byref(netmask), ifaddr.contents.ifa_netmask,
if netmask.sa_family == socket.AF_INET and netmask.sa_len < sizeof(sockaddr_in):
netmask.sa_len = sizeof(sockaddr_in)
netmask = None

yield X(ifaddr.contents.ifa_name,
str(netmask) if netmask else None)
except NotImplementedError:
# Unsupported address family.
yield X(ifaddr.contents.ifa_name,
ifaddr = ifaddr.contents.ifa_next

# When we are done with the address list, ask libc to free whatever memory
# it allocated for the list.

__all__ = ['getifaddrs'] + [n for n in dir() if n.startswith('IFF_')]
As always, this code is released under a BSD-style license.

No comments: